# Harmonic Progression

## Definition

A Harmonic Progression (HP) is a sequence of numbers formed by taking the reciprocals of an arithmetic progression (AP). In other words, if the terms of an AP are \(a, a+d, a+2d, \ldots\), then the corresponding harmonic progression is given by \(\frac{1}{a}, \frac{1}{a+d}, \frac{1}{a+2d}, \ldots\) where \(a\) is the first term of the AP, \(d\) is the common difference between the terms of the AP, and each term of the HP is the reciprocal of the corresponding term in the AP.

For example:

The sequence 12, 6, 4, 3, \( \frac{12}{5} \), 2, \( \frac{12}{7} \), \( \frac{3}{2} \) is derived from the harmonic progression (HP) formed by taking the reciprocals of each term in an arithmetic progression (AP) with a general term given by \( \frac{k}{12} \), where \(k\) ranges from 1 to 8.

## General term of an HP

Given an arithmetic progression (AP) with a general term represented as \(a_n = a + (n-1)d\),

where:

- \(a\) is the first term of the AP,
- \(d\) is the common difference between consecutive terms,
- \(n\) is the position of the term in the sequence,

the corresponding Harmonic Progression (HP) is formed by taking the reciprocals of each term in this AP.

The general term \(h_n\) of the harmonic progression, corresponding to the \(n^{th}\) term of the arithmetic progression, is given by:

**For example:**

If an AP has a first term \(a = 4\) and a common difference \(d = 3\), its \(n^{th}\) term is \(a_n = 4 + (n-1)3\). The corresponding \(n^{th}\) term of the HP derived from this AP would be:

## Harmonic Series

A harmonic series is a sequence of numbers formed by taking the reciprocals of the positive integers. It is expressed as the sum of the reciprocals of the natural numbers, starting from 1. The harmonic series is represented as:

The series is known for its divergence, meaning that as \(n\) approaches infinity, the sum of the series grows without bound. Despite the terms of the series becoming smaller as \(n\) increases, the total sum never converges to a finite limit. This characteristic distinguishes the harmonic series from geometric and arithmetic series, which can converge under certain conditions.

## The general Harmonic series

A general harmonic series is an extension of the concept of a harmonic series, where each term is the reciprocal of an arithmetic sequence. Formally, it can be defined as follows:

Given an arithmetic sequence with a first term \(a\) (where \(a \neq 0\)) and a common difference \(d\), the corresponding general harmonic series is the sum of the reciprocals of the terms of this sequence. The \(n^{th}\) term of such a series can be expressed as:

where:

- \(a\) is the first term of the arithmetic sequence,
- \(d\) is the common difference between consecutive terms,
- \(n\) is the number of terms in the series.

**Divergence and Convergence:**

Like the basic harmonic series, general harmonic series can diverge or converge depending on the values of \(a\) and \(d\). However, the basic harmonic series (where \(a = 1\) and \(d = 1\)) is known to diverge as \(n\) approaches infinity.

**No Closed-Form Sum (No formula)**

The general harmonic series upto \(n\) terms, like the basic harmonic series, does not have a simple closed-form expression for its sum. Approximations and specific case evaluations are used to understand and apply these series in practical scenarios.

## Important Properties of HP

### Relationship Between Three Terms in a Harmonic Progression

If three numbers \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are in Harmonic Progression (HP), then the middle term \(b\) satisfies the relationship:

Proof:

By definition, for numbers to be in harmonic progression, their reciprocals must be in arithmetic progression. Therefore, if \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are in HP, then \(\frac{1}{a}\), \(\frac{1}{b}\), and \(\frac{1}{c}\) are in AP.

For three numbers to be in AP, twice the middle term must be equal to the sum of the other two terms. Applying this rule to the reciprocals, we have:

Rearranging the equation to solve for \(b\) yields:

Multiplying the numerator and denominator inside the fraction by \(ac\), we get:

**Conclusion**

This proof demonstrates that if three numbers \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are in harmonic progression, the middle term \(b\) can be expressed as \(\frac{2ac}{a + c}\), elucidating the intrinsic relationship between terms in a harmonic sequence and providing a method to calculate the middle term given the other two.

Solving problems in HP

To solve problems based on Harmonic Progression (HP), one efficient strategy is to **transform them into Arithmetic Progression (AP) problems**. This is possible because the reciprocal of a harmonic progression forms an arithmetic progression. Specifically, if you have terms in HP, by taking the reciprocal of each term, you obtain an AP. This allows you to apply the formulas and techniques used for solving AP problems, such as finding the common difference, the nth term, and the sum of terms. Once solved in the AP form, you can convert the results back to address the original HP problem. This approach simplifies calculations and problem-solving.